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  • Abortion is the delivery of a dead foal and its placenta before an age at which the foal would have been able to survive independently. This is usually taken to be up to day 300-310 of gestation.

  • A keratoma is a rare benign tumor of the inner layer of keratin-producing epidermal hoof wall cells that forms inside a horse's foot. As the tumor slowly grows, it expands and separates the hoof wall laminae, causing pain and lameness.

  • Laminitis is a common but still incompletely understood condition that causes varying degrees of foot pain, from the slightly pottery pony to severe life-threatening lameness.

  • Good management is the key to preventing or controlling the spread of disease. Good management practices aim to keep horses in good condition and in a healthy environment, in order to reduce the risk of introduction and spread of disease, to identify individuals especially at risk and to promote rapid recovery if disease does occur.

  • When a farrier shoes a horse, accurate placement of each nail through the insensitive epidermal laminae of the hoof is essential. The nail must penetrate deep enough to hold firm, but not deep enough to penetrate the sensitive laminae of the hoof.

  • Navicular 'disease' is really a group of related conditions affecting the navicular bone and associated structures in the foot. There are several possible causes of pain in and around the navicular bone.

  • Osteochondrosis (OCD) is a failure of the bone underlying the smooth articular cartilage inside the joints, i.e. the subchondral bone, to form properly from the skeleton's cartilage template.

  • Phenobarbital is used off label and given by mouth or as an injection to treat seizures or to sedate your pet. Common side effects include sleepiness, increased thirst, urination, and/or appetite. Do not use this medication in pets with liver, lung, or kidney disease or those that are allergic to barbiturates. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

  • Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID, previously known as Equine Cushing's Disease) is a complex condition associated with abnormal function of a small, hormone-producing organ, the pituitary gland, that lies at the base of the brain.

  • Procainamide is used off label and given by mouth or injection to treat abnormal heart rhythms. Side effects may include loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, low blood pressure, less effective heart beats, and rhythm abnormalities. Do not use in Doberman Pinchers, Boxers, pets that are allergic to it or related drugs, or pets with myasthenia gravis, torsade de pointes, cardiac glycoside intoxication, or heart block. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.